Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Full scale Management In a straightforward definition the board is the individual or people who control or direct a business or other endeavor. Be that as it may, the executives is a lot bigger than only one individual or little gathering of individuals. The executives is likewise the act of taking care of, oversight, bearing, and control (www. word reference. com). It is a lot bigger than one individual, or even a little gathering of individuals; the executives is all over. We use the board in all parts of our day by day lives, regardless of whether it is sorting out an occasion, or dealing with a buy request. The executives must be masterminded through various levels so as to be effective, starting with small scale the executives, in the long run its way up the stepping stool to full scale the executives. Smaller scale and large scale parts are the center make up of each business, each having various characteristics and qualities that structure the general structure squares to progress. During the preparation of another worker, most organizations utilize the smaller scale the board procedure to give the direction and devices the representative needs to get fruitful with that business. We will compose a custom paper test on Small scale and Macro Management or on the other hand any comparable theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page Miniaturized scale the board is utilized my chiefs to watch and control crafted by their representatives. It includes giving representative littler undertakings, while they screen and evaluate the work being done (www. word reference. com). Small scale the board is regularly utilized in the start of any business or foundation; essentially, you have to begin some place. In the opening of another business, direction will consistently should be offered from coordinate workplaces to guarantee a spotless progress in the initial procedure. When a business is set up, the executives will thusly smaller scale deal with their workers; directing them through the methodology and duties the organization requires. Since miniaturized scale overseeing includes managers neglecting the errands their workers are embraced, intermittently it is thought of as an apathetic strategy. Through the eyes of a partner, small scale overseeing can be de persuading, thusly making uncertainty and absence of trust in the work environment. Despite the fact that miniaturized scale overseeing is utilized as an early on apparatus, it tends to be drawn out for a more drawn out term of time. Doubt, incredulity, and vulnerability are ordinary emotions a representative may understanding if their manager is mishandling the technique for small scale overseeing. The job of administrator is a significant situation of oversight in any association. The director/supervisor plays a key capacity, in the everyday needs of the association, by finding a parity of work effectiveness and overseeing staff. This equalization turns out to be significantly increasingly pervasive when doling out tasks or interfacing with subordinates. This paper will investigate a few angles or entanglements, directors could wind up associated with; and will distinguish strategies used to conquer these circumstances when managing subordinates. The situation of chief holds numerous obligations in an association; those duties go from managing demands from upper administration and overhauling employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, and keeping in mind that seeing to postulations duties, the supervisor despite everything needs to oversee the general heading of their area of expertise. The numerous errands a director must work inside, requires the chief to be adaptable and
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Music is from numerous points of view the texture of our lives and the meaning of society. It is a token of how things used to be, a sign of how things are, and a perspective on where society is going. Music is an immediate impression of the image of society. Music can be an approach to convey messages, a beautiful medium, an artistic work, or simply a wellspring of amusement. Regardless of what it is utilized for, music is the ideal workmanship and our lives would be significantly less complete without it that life as we probably am aware it would not in any way be the equivalent without music. Music is the ideal craftsmanship. It has development, since it advances over a set timeframe. Every melodic work have a start and an end. In any case, music doesn't confine the crowd in the way that motion pictures or realistic craftsmanship does. The audience can make whatever picture she or he needs to when tuning in to music. It is a craftsmanship that interests to the cognizant brain, yet the best music additionally claims to the inner mind. No idea is required to appreciate great music, however it is regularly thought-motivating. Instrumental music doesn't tie the audience into a fixed layout in the manner that writing and verse do: the response to music is not quite the same as individual to individual. In spite of the fact that it is presumably the most hard to deliver the ideal symbolism in instrumental music, it very well may be finished. Beethovens Opus 27, Number 2, Piano Sonata No. 14, First Movement gives the picture of a drained elderly person composing by the light of the moon and his energy without utilizing any words whatsoever. Music with verses is frequently alluded to as Ã¢â¬Å"words set to music.Ã¢â¬ This isn't generally the situation. In some cases it is progressively precise to allude to music with verses as Ã¢â¬Å"music set to words.Ã¢â¬ This structure both broadens and confines the writers aesthetic range. Verses make it simpler for arrangers to draw out their primary thoughts without communicating them in notesNnot all writers have the intensity of Beethoven! In any case, they confine the pictures of the melodic work similarly that exposition and verse limit their subject. Regardless of whether instrumental or melodious, music originates from the individuals and can illuminate all of us. It was during the 1960s that the social upset and the battles for social equality propelled such performers a s Bob Dylan, Janis Joplin and Joan Baez to compose tunes of dissent. Thusly, the music of these craftsmen, and numerous others, impacted the more youthful ages and spread the news of the insurgency. Without music, numerous young people of the time would not have been given the impact of the time or its related attitude. Music was, and keeps on being, a sort of social training to the more youthful age. Youngsters go to well known music for their ways of thinking and get a feeling of their place on the planet. Truth be told, clubs of youngsters are frequently characterized by the music they tune in to: Ã¢â¬Å"punksÃ¢â¬ tune in to underground rock and overwhelming metal; Ã¢â¬Å"nerdsÃ¢â¬ are presumed to tune in to old style music; the Ã¢â¬Å"inÃ¢â¬ swarm tunes in to the most recent material elective music brings to the table; the Ã¢â¬Å"lonersÃ¢â¬ tune in to darken pop craftsmen or great stone. Youth culture would be significantly less striking than it is if the world had no music. Ages would not be started to activity without music. The war drums of crude people groups were a sort of music. It was they that mixed the Cavemen and the Vikings to take an interest in decad e-long wars. Musics social impact is ever-present. Our general public is formed by it. Not exclusively is music the etch of society; it is a steady string that goes through nature. Music is all over the place: the sound of falling water, the stir of leaves underneath, the call of wild birdsNeven the sound of heavy traffic is a sort of music. The basic meaning of music is Ã¢â¬Å"a arrangement of pitches and rhythms that have a general coherence.Ã¢â¬ This definition is constrained to man-made music. Ã¢â¬Å"SyntheticÃ¢â¬ music is extremely only one sort of music. The hints of nature are all piece of the more prominent Music of the universe. Man-made music is altogether impacted by the genuine music of nature. The beat of the heart is the steady bass drum. The sound of strolling feet is the rotating catch drum. The stir of leaves in the breeze is the most noteworthy string area. A waterways streaming sound rounds out the concordance. The Symphony of Nature is the mother of keeps an eye on own music. The nonappearance of the more noteworthy Music can't be thought of. Music is the Universe. The possibility of a nonattendance of man-made music would be nearly as unfathomable. For people to make music is inescapable. It is as normal as suspected. With humanity being encircled by natures Music, he must choose the option to make music of his own. In this manner, the possibility of a world without music is exceptionally speculative. One would sooner think about an existence without encounters or a year without days. A day in a world without music may continue this way: One would stir to the sound of a radio host talking about governmental issues. While in transit to work, the radio show would comprise of meetings with celebrated characters. The work day would be appallingly exhausting, since the workplace would not have any improvements (these would have been made by specialists who had been affected by music). That night, the TV ads would have no jingles, just ladies advancing kitchen cleaners in white kitchens. The challengers of Jeopardy! would record their inquiries for Final Jeopardy in complete quiet, without the renowned tune. The night film would be practically quiet. It would appear to resemble a quiet film, with no coincidental or signature music to increase the in any case flat entertainers. In the cafÃ©, the date would be exhausting and unenlightening. Neither he nor she would have the option to come out with any remotely keen thoughts without music out of sight to keep the mind working. The evenings dreams would not be scored with an upbeat tune or a moderate nocturne. They would happen peacefully, a dreary, dull universe of nothing. This Ã¢â¬Å"world without musicÃ¢â¬ appears to have confusions and breaks in it. It doesn't bode well and doesn't exactly account for itself. Music is basic for the world to try and bode well. It is as in a general sense innate as gravity is known to man. Any endeavor to limit or control music, for example, is made in socialist governmental issues, is both vain and unreasonable. One can't challenge the broadloom of the universe when making political arrangements! To feel that the regular inclination to make music in the picture of the more prominent Music can be stifled is an activity in na*vet. Music is societys mark. The historical backdrop of human artists is rich, and has many fine individuals covering its positions. Music has changed the masterful and non-imaginative world inconceivably, to such an extent that a world without music is simply an unnerving dream. The very possibility is hard to consider. A world without music would be a tranquil spot undoubtedly.
Friday, August 21, 2020
The Growing Problem Of Digital Piracy On The Internet Thesis The Growing Problem Of Digital Piracy On The Internet â" Thesis Example > Figure 1: â¦â¦â¦. ..â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦ 63AbstractWith the rapid growth of internet usage and the increased bandwidth and speed of connection, the frequency and seriousness of digital piracy has mushroomed (Ellacoya, 2007). It is very common today for users to share copyrighted materials among themselves without proper license or permissions. This peer-to-peer (p2p) sharing is made even easier because of the growth of virtual communities. This project will examine p2p networks that appear to be using the internet illegally (digital piracy) and will examine the range of responses developed by companies to combat this activity (Ellacoya, 2007). This topic is of intense interest to those who produce and provide music, movies, software and games. The central question that will drive this study: âHow can the frequency of digital piracy activity be contained or reduced? â The research approach will be to administ er a confidential questionnaire to specific p2p users between the ages of 15-28, to interview (face-to-face) users of p2p programs and to solicit expert opinion from professionals. The expected outcome of this research will be a better understanding of the motivations that digital pirates exhibit for their behavior. Based on these findings, a set of recommended protections for digital rights will be recommended. 1.1 IntroductionDigital piracy in the earlier definition refers to the illegal copying of any digital software, digital documents, goods, digital audio (including video and music), for any other reason except to backup without any prospected permission from the owner and compensation to the immediate copyright holder. In specific, digital piracy as a term had been declared illegal since the Copyright Act of 1976 in the United States an act that spread globally to other parts of the world. It was an act amended in the No Electronic Theft (NET) Act earlier before its incepti ons. Digital piracy in the earlier definition refers to the illegal copying of any digital software, digital documents, goods, digital audio (including video and music), for any other reason except to backup without any prospected permission from the owner and compensation to the immediate copyright holder. In specific, digital piracy as a term had been declared illegal since the Copyright Act of 1976 in the United States an act that spread globally to other parts of the world. It was an act in the amendment of the No Theft (NET) Act earlier before its inceptions (Bachman, Paternoster, Ward, 1992; Nagin Paternoster, 1993; Hickman Piquero, 2000; Tibbetts Myers, 1999; Piquero Tibbetts, 1996; Tibbetts, 1997). These acts made the distribution and copying of digital content over the Internet and other places, a felony offense. The laws produced few court cases for pirating music, software, and movies directly from the Internet. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) d eveloped treaties in assisting in the copyrights protection (Ellacoya, 2007). Specifically, WIPO developed three treaties precluding the unlawful taking of any copyrighted material: The Performers and Producers of Phonograms Treaty, The Copyright Treaty, and The Databases Treaty. Regardless of the establishment of these treaties, Rao (2003) argued that the rates of piracy international increased in the 2000 and 2001 and has been increasing by the day. Therefore, piracy has developed as a worldwide behavior in the recent times. Because of the Internet attributes, piracy took place mostly in almost complete deceit that made the tracking of piracy rates nearly impossible. An industry groups in their research results estimated software piracy as accounting for nearly 11 billion dollars in term of lost revenue and was a substantial contributor to job losses and reducing the governmentâs revenues (Business Software Alliance, 2003).
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Even though it may seem like a small part of the work, in truth, the title of your thesis paper plays a key role in the first impression it makes on a reader. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why you have to take some time to come up with the best thesis title you can. Luckily, this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to be a difficult task. Many people overthink the process. As a result, they fall into a number of common mistakes. To come up with a strong thesis title, keep these tips in mind. 1. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Use Unnecessary Words The title of your thesis should clearly express what topic youÃ¢â¬â¢re exploring. However, it should also be concise. After brainstorming through your ideas and choosing the best one, look at it carefully to make sure there arenÃ¢â¬â¢t any unnecessary words cluttering it up. If you find any, remove them until you come up with a version of your thesis title that makes sense, but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any unneeded words. 2. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Use Complex Nouns This is a mistake that students of all ages make. Whether theyÃ¢â¬â¢re working on a high school paper or finishing up a major thesis for a graduate program, they think theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll impress their readers if they use big, complex nouns. Luckily, the English language is full of synonyms. After you decide on a thesis title, take a look through a thesaurus to find out if there is a way you can further simplify your title with less complex words. 3. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Be Vague Again, your thesis title should clearly communicate what kind of argument or point youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be making in your work. Obviously, for a paper as long as a thesis, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no room in the title to fully develop the main ideas, but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not an excuse to come up with something so vague that a reader has no idea what the paper will be about. Take your time to decide on a title that makes your main point clear without being overlong. This process can be a little challenging, but it is worth the efforts. 4. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Be Boring A thesis title isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a headline for a celebrity gossip magazine. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to exaggerate your topic or try too hard to capture a readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. On the other hand, you also donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to go too far in the other direction, coming up with a thesis title thatÃ¢â¬â¢s simply too boring to entice a person to read more. The point is, your thesis is supposed to make an interesting, unique argument. Ideally, your thesis should be something that a person interested in. Thus, your title has to make the reader sure that the plot will be truly informative and useful. If you succeed in writing a strong, compelling thesis paper, then you should also focus on coming up with a title that reflects its content. Your title should convince a reader that your work is worth their time. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s no secret that a thesis paper can be an intimidating assignment. When youÃ¢â¬â¢re finished writing it, you may be tempted to just slap on a title thatÃ¢â¬â¢s simple and to-the-point. However, this is an important part of your work. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s worth your time to make it perfect.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
I. Masculinity in modern society is continuously changing all around us. The academic journal Ã¢â¬Å"Masculinity and the sociality of cooking in menÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday livesÃ¢â¬ , written by Nicklas Neuman, Lucas Gottzen, and Christina Fjellstrom highlights both gender roles and how masculinity affect society. The journal was published in Ã¢â¬Å"The Sociological ReviewÃ¢â¬ in November of 2017. From we what we know about the social in any common relationship, the woman cooks for the man and the man only cooks in leisure situations. The authors are suggesting that there must be a cultural transition and need for studies of gendered divisions of domestic work. The author doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t not state a clear social theory, but his study is centered around masculinity and genderedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The original interview approach was inspired by previous work on how men communicate their different sociolinguistic perspectives. (Coates, 2003; Edley and Wetherell, 1999; Cough an d Edwards, 1998). III. The study conducted is interested is analyzing how masculinity and sociality are perceived to men in their everyday domestic cooking experiences. In society it is common for the man to cook within partnerships. The sociologist who conducted the study proposed that maybe this culture in rapidly changing. They took their study to Sweden, due to the fact they realized out of every culture their Scandinavian culture has the largest growth between men and women when it comes to domestic cooking. They want to see how masculinity has been formed in the mind of men by hearing about their stories and experiences. Since masculinity is learned throughout life, rather than being an inherent culture among men. For their sample size, the sociologist selected thirty-one men. All these men were between the ages of twenty-two and eighty-eight. The sociologist coined the term purposeful sampling, where they believed the subjects they chose would provide the best answers; making sure that the stor ies went in-depth. To conduct the study, the sociologist interviewed all the men. Most of the interviews conducted,Show MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 Pages T. A. Judge, and J. D. Kammeyer-Mueller, Staffing Organizations, 7th ed. (Madison, WI: Mendota House/Irwin, 2011) Other Interests Although he cannot keep up (literally!) with Dr. RobbinÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishments on the track, Dr. Judge enjoys golf, cooking and baking, literature (heÃ¢â¬â¢s a particular fan of Thomas Hardy and is a member of the Thomas Hardy Society), and keeping up with his three children, who range in age from 23 to 9. Preface Welcome to the fifteenth edition of Organizational Behavior
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Jack the Ripper is one of the most well-known serial killers of the ages. Although everyone knows the name, Ã¢â¬Å"Jack the Ripper,Ã¢â¬ nobody really knows of his true identity. When the murder victims were found the press and the detectives could never put a name with the crime. Jack the Ripper is a mythic figure comparable with Frankenstein and Dracula. The Rippers first three murdered whores, in 1888, were believed to be by the same person. These murdered victims all seemed to occur around the Parish Church of Saint Mary, also called Ã¢â¬Å"the White Chapel.Ã¢â¬ (FidoÃ¢â¬ ¦1) Ã¢â¬Å"Jack the Ripper,Ã¢â¬ was the name given to an unidentified serial killer in the White Chapel district of London in 1888. The name came from a letter left at the crime scene, written byÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Newspaper coverage and widespread, enduring coverage of the Jack the Ripper case were strongly enforced. Even with all the coverage investigators could not connect anyone with the murders. In 1888, over a time period of 10 weeks, Jack the Ripper walked the streets of East End. This is where he encountered and murdered several prostitutes between the hours of midnight and dawn. The victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ bodies were thrown around like rag-dolls, laid out, cut throats, and their abdomens had been ripped open. This way of murder was sought to be very repetitive, giving the Ripper an almost instant notification sign. Nobody knows the exact number of women that were killed by Jack the Ripper. Though the investigators believe there were only five victims. Even with the investigators analysis, through the weeding process it is proven that there were only four victims of murder by Jack. (EvansÃ¢â¬ ¦ 21) It was decided that the local police of the White Chapel area were not capable of catching Jack the Ripper alone. For this reason they got the assistance of the Central Office at Scotland Yard, also known as the CID. The CID was a top investigation agency that would help th e patrol officers of the White Chapel district to solve the case. (EvansÃ¢â¬ ¦ 21) JackÃ¢â¬â¢s killing field, Ã¢â¬Å"the heart of the Eastland,Ã¢â¬ was mainly the White Chapel and Spital fields area, this was an area of only one square mile. White Chapel was mainly womenShow MoreRelatedEssay Jack the Ripper1209 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"Jack the RipperÃ¢â¬ Jack the Ripper was a notorious serial killer, whom some believe never even existed at all. From August to November 1888, Jack the Ripper terrorized the East End of London by being responsible for the death and mutilation of at least seven female prostitutes. The destitute East End is also known as the White Chapel district of London, England. A few of the prostitutes were targeted as they were leaving brothels in and around the White Chapel district. Jack the Ripper seemedRead MoreJack the Ripper Essay2373 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesJack the Ripper Source Related In August 1888 a killer who became known as Jack the Ripper committed the first of a sequence of murders. To this day the description of the killer remains a mystery. A mad person who is violent and dangerous who emerge to kill without warning and with no guilt, horribly killed five women in the EastRead MoreThe Mystery Of Jack The Ripper2600 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesNobody could ever put a face to the so known, Ã¢â¬Å"Jack the RipperÃ¢â¬ . Beginning in 1891 and finally evolving in 1891, ten murders took place in the area of London known as the East End. They werenÃ¢â¬â¢t randomly chosen either they all were street prostitutes. As well as a case that they were trying to correlate the same murderer with, so it was included in the file. The Ã¢â¬Å"Pinchin Street torsoÃ¢â¬ , but it had no association with the other murders. In this case they had discovered a female torso which had beenRead MoreSerial Killers : Jack The Ripper1546 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescase that sticks out from the others and because of this many do remember. The case, almost as old as modern policing itself, is simply remembered by name coined for the killer, Jack the Ripper. What makes Jack the Ripper such a mystery is the fact that he was never caught. The five murders carried out by Jack the Ripper were located at Whitechapel. Whitechapel is a small town in London which was stricken with poverty. Families lived in very small single room houses. These houses were cramped withRead MoreJack the Ripper and H.H. Holmes1279 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswondered what happened to Jack the Ripper? Did he actually get away with it and die free, or was he arrested for different misdemeanors? It is possible that he had a connection to another well-known murderer, H.H. Holmes, but not just any connection. By looking at The Devil in the White City, we can see that there are things about murderer H.H. Holmes that are very similar to Jack the Ripper. This could mean that we finally have an answer to the mystery: who was Jack the Ripper? Let us begin with HolmesRead More Jack the Ripper Essay1777 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Jack the Ripper was one of the most famous and renowned killers in history. Even though he was not the first serial killer, he was the first killer to strike on a metropolis setting. Jack the Ripper was in his prime at a time when the media had a strong control over society and society as a whole was becoming much more literate. Jack started his killing campaign at a time of political controversy between the liberals and social reformers along with the Irish Home rule partisans. The reports ofRead MoreThe Legend Of Jack The Ripper1841 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesperiod and mothers of small families had to prostitutes themselves in order to provide meals for their families. Between August and November of 1888, a notorious murderer rose to the surface, slaughtering at least five women escorts. The legend of Jack the Ripper is one of the most famous, yet unsolved mysteries of English crime. I. Suspected Murder Victims August 31, 1888, was the first killing, Mary Ann Nichols was found dead on the side of a street at four oÃ¢â¬â¢clock in the morning. She had been deadRead More Jack the Ripper Essay1224 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Jack the Ripper terrorized the streets of London of unknown reasons. With his ability to disappear he was impossible to track, therefore making him one of the most interesting and clever criminals known to man. In 1888, five prostitutes were brutally murdered within a tiny area of the East End of London. The killings rapidly occurred over an 11- week period but they have both haunted and fascinated people for over a hundred years. (Jakubowski 16) There is no reason to believe that the victimsRead More Jack The Ripper Essay923 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Jack The Ripper In August 1888, the first of a series of murders was committed by a killer who became known as Jack the Ripper. To this day the identity of the killer remains a mystery. Five women were brutally killed in the East End of London, by a maniac who appeared to kill without warning and with no remorse. 1)What can you learn from Source A? Source A tells us that the two murders were aimed directly at the poorest people in East End at the time, and usuallyRead MoreInvestigation of Jack the Ripper Essays1436 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesInvestigation of Jack the Ripper Jack the ripper was an unknown serial killer, he kept his true identity a secret from the world. Many people today see Jack the Ripper as a mystery which will never be solved. People have tried for many years to find out the mystery of Jack the Ripper but can not and will not succeed. The fact that no one knows the identity of him keeps the mystery of the unknown killer alive. It will stay a mystery forever, all we know is that he was
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the ERP Technology its Challenges. Answer: Introduction Technology has improved and has enhanced over the period of years. There have been many automated systems that the business organizations are using in the present scenario so that they may gain benefits out of the same. These business organizations are now looking for implementation of the software packages that provide them with an integrated platform for the execution of the business activities. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) packages are an example of such integrated software packages that being extensively used. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP): Meaning Definition ERP stands for Enterprise Resource Planning and it is a process that includes the integrated business mechanisms and activities. There are many significant business tasks that are covered and are executed by using and ERP package, such as, planning, decision making, inventory, sales, marketing, finance, human resources, procurement etc (Kilic, Zaim Delen, 2014). There are various vendors and service providers that have developed and launched their ERP packages in the market. Some of the popular vendors include SAP, Oracle and Microsoft. On the basis of the business needs and requirements, ERP packages can be classified in different types, such as, industry specific ERP systems, web based ERP, ERP packages for small businesses and likewise (Sodomka Klcova, 2016). Need Advantages of ERP Technology The growth and use of ERP in the business organizations is because of the requirements of these business units and the benefits that are offered by the ERP packages. The business firms and organizations that have been successful in the implementation of the ERP packages have managed to achieve a competitive edge over the others. The manual operations that were previously carried out by the resources in the organizations have now been replaced by their automated versions through ERP packages. This had led to the enhancement and improvement in the productivity levels of the employees (Ovidiu, 2010). Planning is an essential activity in the business organizations. ERP packages have provided the ability to carry out efficient planning and estimations. A strong integration and collaboration is required for the success of the business organizations. ERP packages have provided the organizations with the ability to have a string integrated environment. Management of the changes in the business organization is made easy with the aid of the ERP packages. These changes may comprise of the modifications in the business requirements or specifications along with the number of users or customers. There may also be changes in the technological concepts and aspects (Matende Ogao, 2013). The overall management of the information is made easy through ERP packages and software. The information operations and activities, such as, storage, retrieval and management can be made smoother through these packages (Kocakulah Willett, 2011) (Chauhan, Dwivedi Sherry, 2012). The additional and unnecessary infrastructural and operational costs are avoided through the successful implementation of the ERP packages. This leads to the enhancement of the overall budget and expenses of the organization. ERP systems work on the information sets that are associated with the business organizations along with the real-time data and information as well. This leads to the improvement of the customer-centric operations and activities. The reporting structure of the organizations is improved with the implementation of ERP packages which makes it possible for all the resources to have updated information at all times. The overall communication strategy and architecture also improves. ERP packages also assist the organizations in the adherence and compliance to several legal policies, regulatory frameworks and laws. This reduces the probability of the legal risks and issues (Hasibuan Dantes, 2012). These systems have an inherent quality of scalability which provides the organizations with various different capabilities, such as, flexibility and adaptability. The relationship and the engagement with the customers also improve with the implementation of the ERP packages. This is because of the reason that the business operations are streamlined and the customer preferences and choices are also taken into consideration for the execution of business tasks and activities (Sadrzadehrafiei, 2013). Challenges in ERP Technology There can be many challenges that may come up in association with the ERP technology. These challenges are as listed below. There are various factors that are associated with the selection of the suitable ERP package for an organization. Some of these factors include the size of the software, the automated systems already in use, the requirements and specifications of the organization, scope of the system and many more. The selection of the system, therefore, emerges as one of the major challenges (Babaei, Gholami Altafi, 2015). ERP systems and packages have experienced many changes and transformations in the recent years. In the past, these packages were mostly batch processed and integrated. However, these systems have now shifted towards the real-time based integration. The transition process from batch integration to real-time integration is a major challenge (Momoh, Roy Shehab, 2010). Initially, organizations tend to implement the basic ERP packages that have limited requirements and specifications involved. There are a few operations covered by these systems and once the organization expands, the needs of these organizations also rise. This often leads to the presence of multiple ERP packages to support and maintain which becomes troublesome at times (Singla, 2009). There are several technical issues that may come up in association with the ERP technology and packages: There are a number of existing servers and workstations that are installed in the organization. With the implementation and deployment of the ERP technology, there are many modifications that need to be done to these servers and workstations. The speed and bandwidth of the internet servers and the network connections shall also be considered and shall be enhanced as per the requirements of the ERP system. This may have an impact on the existing systems and operations being carried out in the organization (Nordin Adegoke, 2015). Compatibility and integration of the ERP package with the rest of the software and hardware installed in the organization can come up as a challenge. In the first attempt of the ERP implementation in the business organization, it would be necessary to migrate and move the existing and legacy data sets to the new platform. There may be issues in the data quality and consistency in the process of migration. Security may be one of the major challenges that may come up with the deployment and implementation of the ERP technology and package in the organization. Some of these security issues that may crop up are as listed below. There are a lot many ERP packages and software that may go unpatched. It becomes required to install updates and patches in the ERP packages and the failure to do so may lead to the enhancement of the complexity. Poor configuration of the ERP packages and systems may lead to the increased probability of the backdoor access for the attackers. This may lead to the enhancement of the security vulnerabilities as well (Zafeiropoulos, Metaxiotis Askounis, 2005). Outdates web interfaces used in the ERP technology may lead to the occurrence of the security attacks such as SQL injection and web based security risks and attacks. There are a lot many access points that are present in the ERP package which leads to the issues associated with the violation of the access control and authentication. This may lead to breaching and leakage of information. There may be availability attacks that may come up with the occurrence and execution of flooding attacks such as denial of service and distributed denial of service attacks. The availability of the services, information and operations may be impacted as a result of these attacks on security (Acharya, Jethava Patel, 2013). There can also be issues with the integrity of the information associated with the ERP packages. There are vast data sets that are involved in ERP packages that may be exposed to the risks such as alteration of the contents without adequate permission to do so. Malware attacks are also common in case of the automated systems and applications that may be witnessed in case of ERP packages as well. Resolution of the ERP Challenges The challenges that have been illustrated above can be further understood with the case studies associated with the implementation of the ERP packages in the organizations. There have been many success and failure stories in the past. The success stories have been described below to describe the challenges and the reasons of success or failure of the ERP packages and system. ERP Success Story Cadbury is an organization that is one of the worlds largest manufacturers of chocolates and is based out of Birmingham, United Kingdom. The ERP technology was successfully implemented in the organization with the adherence to the following points. The strongest point involved in the successful implementation of ERP in Cadbury was the correct planning and estimation activities that were involved. The choice of the vendor was done according to the requirements of the ERP package in the organization and the analysis involved was also extensive. Effective communication channel was developed with the ERP vendor with the development of a portal called vendor connect for this purpose (Singh, 2017). Implementation methodology that was used by the organization was also apt. Cross-functional implementation was done so that the series of phases were involved rather than implanting all the functionalities all at once. The management also made sure that the monitoring tasks were adequately carried out so that the team members were aware of all the deviations and errors. ERP Failure Story There was another organization called Hersheys that attempted the implementation of ERP but failed in its attempt to do so. There were many challenges that came up for the organization which gradually led to failure. The schedule that was estimated by the vendor and the team of analysts was 48 months. However, the organizational leadership forced the vendor and the project team to implement and complete the project in a period of 30 months only. The incorrect schedule design was a major challenge that led to the failure of the project. Because of the incorrect schedule design and estimation, there were many critical tasks and activities that were missed out during the implementation. One such activity was testing of the critical features that led to the presence of many bugs in the final delivery of the project (Gross, 2011). The implementation methodology that was selected by the management was also not correct. The selected methodology included Big Bang implementation of the ERP technology which led to the failure of the project. There are two scenarios that have been described above which include the success and the failure of the ERP technology in the organizations. The challenges associated with the ERP technology can be overcome by using and adhering to the points listed under the approach followed by Cadbury. Also, there shall be used and implementation of the security controls and mechanisms to avoid the security risks and attacks. There shall also be advanced use of monitoring and control processes by the management and leadership covering the adequate selection of the vendor, methodology, estimations etc. The processes must be validated and verified at every step so that the end result that is achieved is positive. Conclusion Enterprise Resource Planning a process that includes the integrated business mechanisms and activities. There are many significant business tasks that are covered and are executed by using and ERP package, such as, planning, decision making, inventory, sales, marketing, finance, human resources, procurement etc. ERP offers many benefits to the organizations in which it is implemented. Some of these benefits include streamlining of operations, enhanced productivity and accuracy, integration of the business operations, reduced legal risks and increased customer engagement and satisfaction levels. There can also be certain challenges that may be observed in association with the ERP technology. These challenges may include technical issues such as compatibility, integration and installation issues or data quality and consistency issues. There may also be a number of security issues that may be observed in association with the ERP packages. 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